• A flat subdivides into 3 waves
  • Wave A cannot be a triangle
  • Wave C must be a motive wave
  • Wave B retraces at least 90% of wave A


  • Wave B retraces most often between 100%-138% of wave A
  • Wave C retraces most often between 97%-161% of wave B
  • Wave C usually ends beyond wave A
  • Expanding flats are the most frequent version of this pattern (B-wave is more than 105% of wave A and wave C ends beyond wave A)
  • Running flats (B-Wave is more than 100% of wave A and wave C does not end beyond 97% of wave A) are extremely rare

Technical Analysis